Unit 7 Survival

What should our priorities be to ensure our survival in the future?
There are so many problems that negatively affect the environment. Cost of our life is becoming more highest day after day. Interestingly most of problems are man-made. The major environmental pollutions are water, air and sound pollution.

It is evitable that a large number of populations in a small cities always cause environmental pollution as they use more cars, consume more energy and natural resources and create more wastages ad noises. The uncontrolled number of industries and other constructions that have been grown up beside the rivers are also the reason of environmental pollution. Lots of people would get sick due to water pollution and those diseases can become epidemics if not controlled. Air pollution is also very concerning. Chemical smoke, carbon dioxide and monoxide emitted from cars and industries are the main reason for air pollution. The traffic jam in our cities is one of the terrible things the city dwellers have to face. Sound pollution is produced by the loud horns used by the cars. Loud sound used for announcement and cacophony created due to loud sound. The airplanes that fly over the resident area created a very loud noise as well. It is like a silent killer that causes lots of serious diseases including hearing and brain cancer. The air pollution directly affects the natural balance by affecting the wild lives.

The most important thing to reduce pollution is to create public awareness. We are mostly creating that pollution and endangering ourselves, the Earth and other species. Without our awareness and strict determination to prevent every city from pollution, we can’t reduce or prevent it. Strict laws should be introduced and be applied against any environmental pollution and all the illegitimate industries and companies should be banned. The decentralisation of industries and offices can be effective as it would reduce the number of people currently living in the city.

Job opportunities and other facilities should be improved in the rural areas so that people can manage works in their own cities and villages other than coming to the city and making then big and biggest. The education and morality are two important aspects that help people understand the necessity of keeping cities clean and healthy.

There are lots of theories to solve many environment problem and seems like we all know about it.  People naturally want to live in a better place where they can find the necessary infrastructure, daily needs and can earn a living.

Using renewal resources such as solar, wind, and geothermal energy are ways to meet energy needs. Some places are planned community where many people can live and work in a small area. People need to use resources wisely. They are so limited and are decreasing every day.  Sure, it isn’t always possible to recycle materials. However, the number of recycling companies is increasing as people world-wide become aware of the need to be environmentally responsible. We need to design buildings that environmentally responsible. Reusing existing buildings for new purpose is also a good way to save limited natural  resources like wood and mental. Tree plantation should be in place whenever the authority needs to cut some trees. Factories and industries should be established far away from the residential area. Finally, the government and law enforcement authority should be the sole authority of this development projects instead of the local businessmen.

Thanks to this site.

Why reciprocity is important?

In social psychology, reciprocity is a social rule that says people should repay, in kind, what another person has provided for them; that is, people give back (reciprocate) the kind of treatment they have received from another.

Reciprocity is not only a strong determining factor of human behavior; it is a powerful method for gaining one’s compliance with a request. The rule of reciprocity has the power to trigger feelings of indebtedness even when faced with an uninvited favor and irrespective of liking the person who executed the favor.

When we do, we might say, “Of course it is important.” Like the Golden Rule, we recognize it as a valuable principle to live by. Reciprocity is not something that can be exact, of course, because what one person can do, another person cannot. Reciprocity and cooperation are so valuable precisely because we do have various strengths and weaknesses.

For intimate relationships to grow and become healthy, lasting, and committed, reciprocity is vital. Talking openly, honestly, and deeply can help us make a better decision about whether or not we are genuinely capable of building a healthy reciprocal relationships in our life.

Which do you think is the most important?
The interdependence of a healthy relationship requires that people accept personal responsibility. Acceptance of responsibility for the creation of a reciprocal relationship takes a high degree of emotional maturity, which takes awareness, time, and personal work to develop. This can be the most rewarding work we will do in our lifetime. It is the work of maturation. Respect is another value that needs to be discussed.
Can you think of examples of direct and indirect reciprocity?
Reciprocity in evolutionary biology refers to mechanisms whereby the evolution of cooperative or altruistic behaviour may be favoured by the probability of future mutual interactions. A corollary is how a desire for revenge can harm the collective and therefore be naturally deselected.

Three types of reciprocity have been studied extensively:

  • Direct reciprocity
  • Indirect reciprocity
  • Network reciprocity

Direct reciprocity means that A helps B and B helps A. b, Indirect reciprocitycomes in two flavours. ‘Upstream reciprocity’ (left) is based on a recent positive experience. A person who has been at the receiving end of a donation may feel motivated to donate in turn. Direct reciprocity can lead to the evolution of cooperation.

In the standard framework of indirect reciprocity, there are randomly chosen pairwise encounters between members of a population; the same two individuals need not meet again. One individual acts as donor, the other as recipient. The donor can decide whether or not to cooperate. The interaction is observed by a subset of the population who might inform others. Reputation allows evolution of cooperation by indirect reciprocity.

One individual acts as donor, the other as recipient. The donor can decide whether or not to cooperate. The interaction is observed by a subset of the population who might inform others. Reputation allows evolution of cooperation by indirect reciprocity.

Individual acts of indirect reciprocity may be classified as “upstream” or “downstream”:
– Upstream reciprocity occurs when an act of altruism causes the recipient to perform a later act of altruism in the benefit of a third party. In other words: A helps B, which then motivates B to help C.
– Downstream reciprocity occurs when the performer of an act of altruism is more likely to be the recipient of a later act of altruism. In other words: A helps B, making it more likely that C will later help A.

In network science, reciprocity is a measure of the likelihood of vertices in a directed network to be mutually linked. Like the clustering coefficient, scale-free degree distribution, or community structure, reciprocity is a quantitative measure used to study complex networks. Real populations are not well mixed, but have spatial structures or social networks which imply that some individuals interact more often than others.

Thanks to Wikipedia.